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The Russian Empire built itself on expiation of its land and its potion in the Holy Alliance. It was these factors that worried the British. However what did the Russian see important enough to risk going to war over. Was a warm water port, they fought south to gain warm a water port (Crimea) to allow a year round navy and trade. This however had the unfortunate effect of removing all buffer states from between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. When The French demands for the Catholic control over the Ottoman Christians were granted it violated the previous treaty with the Russians. This was the final straw and Russian mobilized its armies. The war was a devastating, even though they lost no land, loss that destroyed the reputation of both Russia and her nobility. This would contribute to growing disaffection with the nobility that will lead to the fall of the empire.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans were stuck between a rock and a hard place. With pressure between Russia and France over which church had control the which Christians. And the Russians and British war for control over the Mediterranean sea. These events put the Ottoman Empire (already in weaken state due to countless losses and revelations) in a bad position. The Ottomans decided to ally with the British and French. The reforms made by Omar Pasha allowed them operate more effectively. However the victory was too little too late and did little to prevent the fall of the Empire in world war one.
Great Britain and Ireland, The Second French Empire, and The Kingdom of Sardinia
The British and French were concerned about growing Russian power. The British were worried about the power of the Holy Alliance and the threat to the southern trade network in the black and Mediterranean seas. The French want to have Catholic control over Ottoman Christians. This was enforced by the by both British and French warships that violated the London Straits Convention. Sardinia joined to gain support for their unification of Italy, but played little to no part. The British were forced by the disaster known as The Charge of the Light Brigade to end the selling of commissions. Also changed how both the French and British handled the wounded and dead. The Sardinia used its support in the war to ask for help in the unification of Italy.